The United Nation voiced alarm on September 8 at growing attacks on journalists and activists in Pakistan, often amid cries of blasphemy, urging Islamabad to protect those facing threats and probe any violence.
The UN rights office said it was growing increasingly concerned at numerous instances of incitement to violence, both online and off, particularly against women and minority journalists and activists, as well as physical attacks.
It pointed to the case of journalist Shaheena Shaheen, who was shot dead on September 5 by unidentified men in Balochistan's Kech district.
Last year, four journalists and bloggers were killed in Pakistan in connection with their reporting, including Arooj Iqbal, a woman who was shot dead in Lahore as she tried to launch her own local newspaper.
"In the vast majority of such cases, those responsible have not been investigated, prosecuted and held to account," rights office spokesman Rupert Colville told reporters in Geneva.
He pointed out that women journalists in Pakistan last month had warned of a "coordinated campaign" of social media attacks against anyone who was critical of government policies.
He stressed that accusations of blasphemy were "especially worrying," pointing out that they "can put accused individuals at imminent risk of violence."
Colville said the rights office had raised its concerns directly with the Pakistani government and had urged it to take "immediate, concrete steps to ensure the protection of journalists and human rights defenders who have been subjected to threats."
"We also stress the need for prompt, effective, thorough, and impartial investigations with a view to ensuring accountability in cases of violence and killings," he said.
The UN rights office had also called on the Pakistani leadership to "unequivocally condemn incitement to violence against religious minorities," he said, as well as "what appears to be an increase in the use of blasphemy laws for personal or political score-settling."